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In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada, France, and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county.
Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting.
The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, which is in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub (meaning "under" or "below") and urbs ("city").
The first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
The peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were generally inhabited by the very poorest.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not legally defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end.
This trend accelerated through the 19th century, especially in cities like London and Manchester that were experiencing tremendous growth, and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centre to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial town.
Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways, trams and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the center for work.
The earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements.
Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town.
Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand (formerly the New Zealand Fire Service), in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly.