Consolidating knowledge mixed signals in dating
For case-specific impact assessments, species- and site-specific variations need to be considered.), there are proximate causes of bat fatality, implying direct collision and barotrauma.Additionally, collision can be explained by ultimate causes, comprising why bats approach moving turbine blades, including either random collision (presence of bats), coincidental collision (e.g., flight behavior), or collision as a result of attraction (Cryan and Barclay ) reported bats being hit by moving blades but continued flying in an altered direction.Subsequently, effects on bats, breeding and resting birds, raptors, migratory birds offshore, and marine mammals are outlined.
Unintended side effects, especially on wildlife, have long been discussed and substantial research has evolved over the last decade.
However, they found higher fatality rates at turbines in the north compared to the south of the wind farm, as those would be the first turbines to be encountered by migratory bats when flying from north to south (Baerwald and Barclay ) stated that barotrauma, which is caused by a sudden decrease in air pressure resulting in severe hemorrhaging, might cause up to 90 % of fatalities.
Others who did not support this hypothesis like Piorkowski and O’Connell () further imply that other factors such as postmortem time, environmental temperature, and freezing of carcasses could mimic the diagnostic criteria for pulmonary barotrauma.
Beyond wildlife impacts, it is also essential to assess possible effects wind farm development may have on scenery and human health (e.g., Knopper and Ollson This review presents a qualitative analysis of international research in the field of wind energy and wildlife interactions on- and offshore.
We reviewed over 220 documents covering different publication types, i.e., peer-reviewed articles, peer-reviewed synthesis, reports (gray literature), and conference material, all of which had been openly accessible or published in scientific journals up until 2014.
At the same time, wind energy development can generate effects on wildlife, raising concern about affected species (e.g., Bailey et al. Numerous surveys have been carried out within this field of research, with a focus on bats, birds, marine mammals, fish, and benthos, to understand the mechanisms behind these effects and to use this knowledge for the development of mitigation measures and planning tools.