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The active neurological decline lasts from 1 to 20 years and the patients then remain stable with a fixed neurological deficit and residual seizures (Mller R. Prevalence increases with increasing latitude, and globally increased during the twentieth century.
Course and prognosis of disseminated sclerosis in relation to age of onset. MS is the most common disabling disease of the nervous system: in USA it afflicts 1 in 700 people (350,000 Americans). In 1940, the ratio of women to men with MS in the United States was approximately 2 to 1 : by 2000, that ratio had grown to approximately 4 to 1, suggesting that what women do differently than men, such as use of hair dye and use of cosmetics that may block vitamin D absorption, could harm.
The site of attack is organ- or tissue-specific or more systemic : as the self-antigen(s) is usually expressed in more than one cell type, from an anatomical point of view autoimmune diseases should more properly be enclosed among the multi-organ failures (MOF).
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae) as after splenectomy, gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), rotavirus and parvovirus (due to decreased Ig A on mucosal surfaces) They are caused by autoimmune reactions and affect ~ 3-5% of the population with 2/3 of the patients being women.
In western societies, MS is second only to trauma as a cause of neurologic disability in early to middle adulthood.
MS is more common in Caucasian Americans than in Americans of African or Oriental heritage (15 every 100,000 in Americans of Japanese heritage; Japn has the lowest prevalence : 2 every 100,000).
Those patients who progressed most rapidly expressed significantly more dendritic transcripts than patients who progressed more slowly chronic encephalitis confined to one hemisphere and contralateral cerebellar hemi-atrophy.
In the active phase, neuronophagia, activated microglial cells (rod cells), microglial nodules, and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, are present.
Elevation of plasma vasopressin levels (probably as a result of stress) may present as a matter of consequence, but susceptibility of the V2R-overexpressed and c AMP-hypersensitized inner ear to plasma vasopressin elevation might be essential as the basis of this disease.
This was followed by two consecutively smaller epidemics with respective peaks each about 12 years later, and there is now a new epidemic IV on these islands.
Explanations for changing incidence of MS over time should bring us closer to solving the etiology of this disease.
However, there may be some permanent problems; hair loss with associated loss of color of the hair, eyelashes, and skin may remain.
Lasting visual effects may include the development of secondary glaucoma and cataract.
Incidence rates have also increased, however, in: northeastern Scotland; Turku, Finland; Hordaland, Norway; Rochester, Minn.; Lower Saxony; several areas of Italy. Conversely, incidence and prevalence rates have decreased in the Shetland-Orkneys (the highest prevalence : 250 every 100,000); there was a cyclical pattern in incidence in Rostock, GDR; and there was a transient doubling of incidence in Iceland in the post-World War II decade.