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The text for the exhibit explained that, while evidence of the Folsom culture was found at the site, it was not known what ancient civilization had constructed the stone pavementthe thinking of the time perhaps being that brutish hunter-gatherers would have had neither the organizational skills nor the inclination to put forth the effort required.
A longtime friend and mentor of Collins, Evans has talked about the site with his younger colleague on numerous occasions and is anxious to bring the site to the attention of the public. Kincaid researchers were on hand to give a talk about the shelter during a nighttime meeting of the Texas Archological Society field school in Utopia. Archeologist Tom Hester, shown center, directed the Utopia field school, and commissioned a trace element study on the Paleoindian obsidian artifact found at the Kincaid site. Gene Mear, left, re-inventoried and measured many of the chipped stone tools from Kincaid. Both researchers hope to fully analyze and report their findings in the future. None of the results on the Kincaid materials, however, proved satisfactory.
For Collins, the mystery of who had built the stone floor at Kincaid had been answered.
In subsequent years, as he begun delving into early Paleoinidan tool-making technology, Collins identified other Clovis artifacts from the Kincaid collectionan expended conical blade core, more fluted bifaces and preforms, and other distinctive knapping debris.
Gene Mear, who had retired after a successful career in petroleum geology, later joined Collins in examining the site records and re-inventorying the Kincaid collection, measuring and recording attributes on the chipped stone tools.
Having sifted through the collection and the records for any other possible evidence pertaining to Zone 4, Collins and his colleagues summed up the newly identified Clovis lithic materials from Kincaid in a short article in Current Research in the Pleistocene: From on and just above the pavement were recovered flakes, a blade core, two bifaces broken in early stages of reduction, a preform broken during percussion thinning after successful removal of one flute, and preparation of the platform for the second flute, a basal fragment of a lanceolate obsidian point, and three large retouched flakes.
Although bones of megafauna, such as mammoth, bison, and horse, were found in Zone 4, the identification of smaller species, such as turtle and alligator, supports new viewpoints about a broad-spectrum Clovis diet. The handful of artifacts from Zone 4 and the reworked projectile point from disturbed fill was not sufficient evidence at the time to totally convince other archeologists that the deposit could be attributed to Clovis peoples.