Updating on the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus Couplechatfree
Death occurred because of infection (58 percent), central nervous system disease (36 percent), and renal disease (7 percent).
Infections and diseases of the cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, and central nervous systems are the most frequent causes of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.839 It is not known how much of this increase in survival is due to improved management versus diagnosis of earlier and milder disease.Higher mortality rates are associated with seizures, lupus nephritis, and azotemia.3640Mortality rates for systemic lupus erythematosus are particularly high in children.In a retrospective study26 of Brazilian children, overall mortality during 16 years of follow-up was 24 percent.A study41 involving 15 international laboratories found that ANA tests in the general population were positive in 32 percent of persons at a dilution and in 5 percent of persons at a 0 dilution. Manzi S, Meilahn EN, Rairie JE, Conte CG, Medsger TA Jr, Jansen-Mc Williams L, et al. Rood MJ, ten Cate R, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, den Ouden EJ, Ouwerkerk FE, Breedveld FC, et al. Carreno L, Lopez-Longo FJ, Monteagudo I, Rodriguez-Mahou M, Bascones M, Gonzalez CM, et al. Gladman DD, Goldsmith CH, Urowitz MB, Bacon P, Fortin P, Ginzler E, et al. Rivest C, Lew RA, Welsing PM, Sangha O, Wright EA, Roberts WN, et al. Committees of Pediatric Rheumatology of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics and the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology. Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. Contact [email protected] copyright questions and/or permission requests.Rates of positive ANA tests were not affected by age up to 60 years (the upper age limit of the study).41In the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus, the most common reason for a positive ANA test is the presence of another connective tissue disease. Application of the 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus on a cohort of 346 Norwegian patients with connective tissue disease. Agespecific incidence rates of myocardial infarction and angina in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison with the Framingham Study. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical presentation and prognosis in 31 patients. Immunological and clinical differences between juvenile and adult onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage index for systemic lupus erythematosus international comparison. Association between clinical factors, socioeconomic status, and organ damage in recent onset systemic lupus erythematosus.